González, A., Blanco-Piñeiro, P., Díaz-Pereira, M.P. (2017). Music performance anxiety: Exploring structural relations with self-efficacy, boost, and self-rated performance. Psychology of Music.  Avalaible from

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The first aim of this study was to analyse performance self-efficacy as a predictor of music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance boost and self-rated performance as their outcomes in a sample of students and professionals (teachers and performers). This work also tries to ascertain the similarities and differences between genders and professional status by means of bivariate correlations, MANOVA, and structural equation model (SEM) analyses. A sample of 270 Spanish musicians participated in the study. With regard to the similarities, MPA was negatively predicted by self-efficacy and was a negative predictor of boost; the total effect of MPA on performance was negative and significant. Self-efficacy was a positive predictor of boost and performance. On the contrary, the predictive power of boost over performance was not significant. MPA mediated the effects of self-efficacy on boost; analogously, self-efficacy and boost mediated the influence of efficacy on performance. All of these relationships were equivalent for the four groups of females, males, students, and professionals. As for the main differences, the study showed that performers obtained the highest values in self-efficacy, boost, and performance; students surpassed teachers and performers in MPA; and females were the most anxious subsample. We discuss these findings, acknowledging their limitations and highlighting their implications.

Blanco-Piñeiro, P., Díaz-Pereira, M.P., Martínez, A. (2017). The variation of posture quality across musical instruments and its impact during performances: Musicians, body posture and musical instrument. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. Avalaible from

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Objective: It is known that bad posture increases the risk that a musician may suffer from musculoskeletal disorders. This study compared posture quality required by different instruments or families of instruments. Methods: Using an ad hoc postural observation instrument embracing 11 postural variables, four experts evaluated the postures of 100 students attending a Spanish higher conservatory of music. Results: The agreement of the experts’ evaluations was statistically confirmed by the Cohen κ value between .855 and 1.000 and a Kendall value between 0.709 and 1.000 (p < 0.001 in all cases). Moreover, a χ2 tests revealed significant association between instrument families and seated posture with respect to pelvic attitude, dorsal curvature, and head alignment in both sagittal and frontal planes. This analysis also showed an association between instrument families and standing posture with respect to the frontal plane of the axis of gravity, pelvic attitude, head alignment in the frontal plane, the sagittal plane of the shoulders, and overall posture. Conclusions: While certain postural defects appear to be common to all families of instruments, others are more characteristic of some families than others. The instrument associated with the best posture quality was the bagpipe, followed by percussion and strings.

Keywords: music studentsinstrumentpostureevaluation

Blanco-Piñeiro, P., Díaz-Pereira, M.P., Martínez, A. (2017). Musicians, postural quality and musculoskeletal health: A literature’s review. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 21, 157-172. Available from: Freely available for 50 days from /1UVNo4rR6wBKm


Objective: An analysis of the salient characteristics of research papers published between 1989 and 2015 that evaluate the relationship between postural quality during musical performance and various performance quality and health factors, with emphasis on musculoskeletal health variables. Methods: Searches of Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar for papers that analysed the subject of the study objective. The following MeSH descriptors were used: posture; postural balance; muscle, skeletal; task performance and analysis; back; and spine and music. A descriptive statistical analysis of their methodology (sample types, temporal design, and postural, health and other variables analysed) and findings has been made. The inclusion criterion was that the body postural quality of the musicians during performance was included among the target study variables. Results: Forty-one relevant empirical studies were found, written in English. Comparison and analysis of their results was hampered by great disparities in measuring instruments and operationalization of variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing interest in the relationships among these variables, the empirical knowledge base still has many limitations, making rigorous comparative analysis difficult.

Keywords: review, musician, postural quality, musculoskeletal disorders, efficiency

Blanco Piñeiro, Patricia.  The singer’s body, body posture in singing (III) (El cuerpo del cantante, la postura corporal en el canto). Ópera Actual 190, April 2016, pp., 48-49. Available from here

Blanco Piñeiro, Patricia. The singer’s body, body posture in singing (II) (El cuerpo del cantante, la postura corporal en el canto). Ópera Actual 189. March 2016, pp., 44-45. Available from: here

Blanco Piñeiro, Patricia. The singer’s body, body posture in singing (I) (El cuerpo del cantante, la postura corporal en el canto). Ópera Actual 188. February 2016, pp., 50 y 51. Available from here

Blanco-Piñeiro P., Díaz-Pereira MP & Martínez A. (2015). Common postural defects among music students. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies. 19 (3), 565-572. Available from:


Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors.

 Keywords: music students, evaluation, postural adequacy

Blanco Piñeiro P. (2013). Quality of body position during the musical performance. A descriptive study with students from the High Music Conservatory of Vigo (Dissertation). Department of Special Teaching, University of Vigo. Available from here

Blanco Piñeiro P., & García Soidán JL. (2011). Effects of pelvic alignment in the musical performance. In V. Romo y A. Martínez (Eds.). PhD program in Special Teaching II, Research in the field of physical and musical activity. Santiago de Compostela: Andavira Editora S.L., p. 137-145.


Objective: To analyze the effect of the alignment of the pelvis on the quality of the musical performance was studied. Methods: A sample of 35 students from a high music conservatory, randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control. It became a quasi-experimental design in a natural setting with a convenience sample. Students in the experimental group were initially videotaped playing in their usual posture and subsequently with their pelvis corrected in a neutral posture. Students in the control group had self-correcting posture. A committee of experts evaluated the quality of both executions based on recordings of audio, without knowledge of the position taken by each student. Tests McNemar, T and Chi square were used. Results: Differences statistically significant between groups were obtained, both self-assessments expressed by the subjects as those made by the experts. Conclusions: the experimental group showed significant psychophysical improvements and their quality of musical performance had an appreciable improvement when his pelvis alignment was corrected.

Keywords: Body posture, pelvis, music